The Prometheus has seen action against many different races that have (for whatever reason) decided to attack the Federation, including Borg, Daleks, Reapers and even Flood. The success of the Prometheus in combat is thanks largely down to its strange ability to split into several smaller ships to flank and confuse enemies.
This trick was initially developed by Jean-Luc Picard in one of his first battles against the Borg, during which he disconnected the saucer section of the USS Enterprise to provide the Borg with two targets and therefore confusing their weapons systems. The Prometheus takes this a step further by being able to split into three individual segments, each with their own warp drive, Phaserbanks and Quantum/Photon Torpedo Launchers.
The ship was named after a transport vessel called the Prometheus that was crewed by Humans and was the first Human vessel to register contact with Xenomorphs.